独立主格结构和 with / without复合结构
名词/代词 + 非谓语（doing & todo & done）
Taking your age into consideration，
You’d better not go hiking.
Your age taken into consideration，
you’d better not go hiking.
（Ⅰ） 名词/代词+分词（过去分词done & 现在分词doing）
1.________________， they left the meeting – room.（问题解决了）（settle）
2.____________ ，we`ll go there on foot.
3.He was lying on the grass，（他的手交叉在手下）
This problem settled
his hands crossed under his head.
（Ⅱ）名词/代词 + （being） 形容词
_________________，he had to stay home to look after her.（他妈妈生病了）
2. He entered the house，（他的鼻子冻得通红）
He put on his socks，_____________.
His mother （being） ill
his nose red with cold.
wrong side out
1.I send you 100 dollars today， the rest __ in a year. （2005湖南）
A. follows B. followed
C. to follow D. being followed
2.__________________________ （最后一个人的到来），our party was started.（arrive）
The last guest to arrive
1.Our teacher came into the classroom，
2._______________ the soldier rushed
to the top of the mountain.（肩上一面旗帜）
book in hand
Flag on shoulder
（Ⅵ）有些独立主格结构中没有分词，仅 在名词或代词之后直接跟作表语或状语 的词或词组，省去的分词一般是being 或having been，这是为了简练。但在“being+过去分词”或“there being＋过去分词”结构中，being不可省。
1.___________________， he went to school.（早餐结束后）（over）
2.____________________________，she went back to her room. （没有闹钟的原因）
can‘t go there. （房间正在被油漆）
Breakfast （being） over
There being no cause for alarm
The room being painted now
I couldn`t finish my work with those children __.
A. playing around B. plays around
C. played around D. to play around
（Ⅱ） with/without 名词／代词+ 过去分词。用过去分词表示被动或已完成的动作。
In the read-room， we found her seated at a desk， with her attention __ on a book.
A. fixing B. fixes
C. fixed D. to fix
With a lot of difficult problems __， the newly-elected president is having a hard time.
A. settled B. settling
C. to settle D. being settled
She sleeps with the window open.
__ production up by 60%， the
company has had another excellent year.
A. As B. For C. With D. Through
1.He sleeps with a book in his hand.
2. A girl with a necklace around her
neck got on the bus.
With winter coming on， the trees turn yellow
and some birds fly south.
=Winter coming on， the trees turn yellow and
some birds fly south.
= When winter comes on， the trees
turn yellow and some birds fly south.
With the key lost， she could not enter the room.
=The key lost， she could not enter the room.
=As/Because the key had been lost，
she could not enter the room.
With time permitting， we`ll visit the Summer Palace.
=Time permitting， we`ll visit the
=If time permits， we`ll visit the
Here are the first three volumes with
the fourth one to come out next month.
=Here are the first three volumes， the fourth one to come out next month.
=Here are the first three volumes and the
fourth one is coming out next month.
（Ⅱ） with和without复合结构可以作 后置定语修饰名词，而独立主格结构则不可作后置定语修饰名词。
Soon she arrived at a park with
grass green and flowers in blossom.
=Soon she arrived at a park whose
grass was green and whose flowers
were in blossom.
1.__ ten minutes __ before the last train
left， we arrived at the station.
A. There were; to go B. With; to go
C. I was; left D. It had; left
2.The lady said she would buy a gift for her daughter with the __.
A.20 dollars remained B.20 dollars to remain
C.remained 20 dollars D. remaining 20 dollars
3.__ the lights off， we could not go on with the
A. Until B. As C. With D. Because
4.It was a pity that the great writer died
__ his work unfinished.
A. for B. with C. from D. of
5.The weather __ so bad， we had to put off the
A. was B. is C. were D. being
6. __， the runners raced on to the finishing line.
A. Stick in hand B. With a stick in his hand
C. Sticks in hand D. Sticks in hands
7. The boy lay on the ground， his eyes __ and his
A. being closed; trembling
B. closed; trembling
C. closed; trembled
D. closing; trembled
8.__，the work can be done much better.
A. Given more time
B. We had been given more time
C. More time given
D. If more time had given
9.Weather __， the sports meet will be held
A. permits B. will permit
C. to permit D. permitting
10.__ a rainy day， he didn`t go out for a walk
A. It was B. It is
C. It being D. Having been
一、分析句子结构1. ________many times ， but he still couldn't understand it .2. ___many times ， he still couldn't understand it .
A. Having been told B. Told？
C. He was told D. Though he told3. ________to the left ， you'll find the post office .4. If you ________to the left ， you'll find the post office .5. ________to the left ， and you'll find the post office .
A. Turning B. To turn C. Turn D. Turned
二、分析逻辑主语确定要选非谓语动词之后，第二步要分析其逻辑主语。非谓语动词虽不能作谓语，但仍具有动词特点，其逻辑上的动作执行者就叫做逻辑主语。非谓语动词作状语时，其逻辑主语须和句子的真正主语一致。若不一致，则须加上自己的逻辑主语。1. ________no buses ， we have to walk home .
A. There being B. It were
C. There were D. It being？2. ______Sunday I shall have a quiet day at home .
三、分析语态分析语态就是在确定逻辑主语之后，分析非谓语动词和逻辑主语在搭配使用时是主动还是被动关系。1. ______from space ， the earth looks blue .2.______from space ， we can see the earth is blue .
A. Seen B. Seeing C. To see D.See3. The dirty clothes ______ ， the girl hung them up outside .4. _____ the dirty clothes ，the girl hung them up outside .
A. was washed B. washed
C. were washed D. having washed
四、分析时态，在选定了主动或被动后，还要考虑动作发生的时间问题，即时态。1. The building ______now will be a restaurant .2. The building ______next year will be a restaurant .3. The building ______last year is a restaurant.A. having been built B.to be built？ C. being built D. built？
He had a lot of friends， only a few of _________ invited to his wedding.A. whom？B. them？C. which？ D. who【陷阱】容易误选 A，认为这是非限制性定语从句。【分析】最佳答案是B，这不是非限制性定语从句，而是一个独立主格结构，因为空格后的动词 invited 并不是一个完整的谓语，而是一个过去分词。当然，假若在 invited 前加上助动词 were，则是一个非限制性定语从句，答案便应选A
（1） They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting， none of _________ carried out in their work.A. which？B. them？C. what？D. that（2） They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting， none of _________ were carried out in their work.A. which？B. them？C. what？D. that（3） They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting， but none of _________ were carried out in their work.A. which？B. them？C. what？D. that
On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park， _________ parents seated together joking.A. their？B. whose？C. which？D. that【陷阱】容易误选B，认为这是非限制性定语从句。【分析】最佳答案是A。与上面一题相似，their parents seated together joking 不是非限制性定语从句，而是一个独立主格结构，因为空格后的动词 seated 不是谓语，而是一个过去分词，因为 seat 作动词用时，是及物动词。
（1） On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park， ____ parents were seated together joking.A. their？B. whose？C. which？D. that（2） On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park， and _________ parents were seated together joking.A. their？B. whose？C. which？D. that（3） On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park， _________ parents sitting together joking.A. their？B. whose？C. which？D. that （4） On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park， _________ parents sat together joking.A. their？B. whose？C. which？D. that（5） On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park， _________ parents were sitting together joking.A. their？B. whose？C. which？D. that